If at First You Don't Succeed, Believe Harder


"Confidence isn't optimism or pessimism, and it's not a character attribute," said Ms. Kanter, 61. "It's the expectation of a positive outcome." As Ms. Kanter sees it, talent, intelligence and knowledge are nice, but confidence is essential. 
Not arrogance or conceit, mind you: those traits lead people to be complacent, or to overshoot. But she believes that someone with confidence, defined as a belief that persistence and hard work will yield results, will win out most every time over equally talented but insecure people.
The corollary is that classic psychoanalysis does not work as well as behavioral therapy in restoring confidence.


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