Understanding Iraq’s Hashd al-Sha’bi


The so called Popular Mobilization Forces (PMU) that emerged after the Iraqi Army got humiliated by ISIS in 2014 are a key player in Iraq but also in eastern Syria, where they also operate. Most media outlets refer to the umbrella group for more than 100.000 fighters as "Iranian-led Shia militias" or something like that. However, its important to understand the heterogeneity of the PMUs. This piece is a great basis. 


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